Summary: Internet Producers and Copyright Laws

This blog will be a response to the comments on my article ‘Internet Producers and Copyright Laws’. A comment which I received that I would like to address firstly, is in regards to the strong presence of copyright laws on youTube. Yes, youTube does have strong copyright laws, and they continue to strengthen their presence on youTube. When youTube first arrived on the internet many years ago, an individual could find any type of videos they were looking for, regardless of copyright.

A prime example I look to is videos from the popular show Saturday Night Live. When youTube first arrived, I specifically remember searching throughout youTube for various SNL sketches, and would consistently be able to find the sketches I was looking for, regardless of year. This can no longer be done on youTube as they do not have the copyright to broadcast SNL sketches. This displays the growing presence of copyright laws on youTube. At first, youTube was counterintuitive in regards to copyright laws, unwilling to ‘play fair’ and simply sought out to provide its users with the videos they wanted by any means necessary. The growth of youTube however, has put this to an abrupt end.

Another rebuttal I received that I would like to address is in regards to my involvement in fantasy sports. Some interesting points were brought forth, mainly that there seem to be little to none copyright battles in regards to fantasy sports. I believe the reason for this is that fantasy sports delivers more wanted attention to the sports, and therefore are gladly welcomed by major sport organizations such as the National Football League, among others. Whereas a website like youTube attracts attention from DVD sales, considering if there were no copyright laws you could just watch the videos on their website, fantasy sports attract more attention to the main product. When you participate in fantasy sports, you must consistently watch the games in order to be effective. Therefore, fantasy sports simply attract more viewers and increase ratings, pleasing the major sports leagues.

What I’ve learned this week is that not all people are aware of the strict copyright laws associated with youTube. This is because youTube at first was considered an underground website where people were able to upload anything, regardless of copyright laws. YouTube when on to become a massive worldwide website, and therefore copyright began to rear its ugly head, forcing the website to deal with the strict laws. All content on youTube is now controlled and monitored, and therefore must abide by the correct copyright laws.

Internet Producers and Copyright Laws


The Internet is a force, which is prevalent in today’s world, and will continue to be so in my lifetime. The Internet brings us many tools to use within our daily lives in addition to providing us with various new avenues for entertainment. An aspect of the Internet, which continues to grow, is that of ‘Internet communities’. Internet communities involve a webpage centered on a certain product or topic, providing a means to communicate with others and distribute your message allowing for rebuttal from your peers. This blog will focus on my own involvement on producing and consuming within Internet communities and what leads me to do so. In addition, I will look specifically into youTube, and demonstrate how they are able to be so affective in the face of strict copyright laws.

There are various different avenues in which an individual can contribute to internet communities as a producer or a consumer. There are thousands of websites one can look to in order to contribute, and have their technological voice be heard amongst the depths of the World Wide Web. Personally, the avenue where I consider myself a ‘producer’ is in regards to sports. I am an avid sports fan, and am involved heavily in the aspect known as ‘Fantasy Sports’. Fantasy sports are located on various different websites, and involve the creation and competition of a sports roster amongst your peers. The producing aspect that I partake in is through various chat rooms and forums dedicated to Fantasy Sports. I demonstrate to users my strategies when drafting a team, players I am fond, amongst many other topics all centered on fantasy sports.

The reason why I choose fantasy sports as an avenue to produce material for the Internet, is simply because it is my strongest topic area, and I have an immense passion for it. When I ‘produce’ material for fantasy sports, I am rarely met with negative feedback but merely friendly rebuttals regarding my choices, mostly positive. This is what drives me to produce online content, as it is a topic area I could discuss for hours on end, and it brings me joy.

The topic of producing on ‘online communities’ cannot be discoursed without discussing the biggest online community of all, youTube. The largest online community on the Internet today is youTube, as it receives millions of hits a day, amongst thousands of content uploaded daily by users. Although youTube is a peer produced Internet community they also “introduce new ways to regulate and deny access to content under the guise of enforcing copyright protection.” (Hilderbrand, 2007) Therefore, it is an avenue which encourages peer production, but at the same time heavily protects copyright laws. Individuals can only produce material on youTube if it obeys copyright laws, if not, the material will be removed instantly.

Considering they still abide by the strict copyright laws, youTube still finds a way to be highly productive on the Internet, receiving immense amounts of user produced material daily. The reason why youTube can be so prevalent in the face of restrictive copyright laws is because “video-sharing sites are dominated by the sense of exhibitionism including addressing the audience directly, gags and novelty acts and putting the world on display by documenting significant events.” (Rizzo, 2008) The reason youTube remains so prevalent in the face of copyright laws, is there are many other avenues it addresses which speak to peoples Internet desires. The users consumers enjoy seeing videos of exhibitionism that relate directly to the audience. Therefore, youTube continues to be amongst the worldwide leaders in Internet avenues, which allow its users to produce material for the world to see. Although users must still abide by strict copyright laws when uploading material, they are able to address many of the consumers desires without hindering any copyright laws, allowing them to remain prevalent within the Internet community.


Hilderbrand, L. (2007). ‘Youtube: Where Cultural Memory and Copyright Converge’. Film Quarterly. Vol. 61, No. 1, 48-57.

Rizzo, T. (2008). ‘YouTube: the New Cinema of Attractions SCAN’ Journal of Media Arts Culture. Vol 5, No. 1, Online Journal.

*Image Courtesy of Purchased Microsoft Office for Mac.

Misogyny in Hip-Hop: An Op-Ed Post


The information portrayed on the Wikipedia website regarding misogyny in hip-hop is unreliable, and cannot be considered valid. The process included when defining information on Wikipedia allows for inconsistency and amateurs to portray it, leaving every topic included on the website, up for debate. As stated in Wikipedia fights the War of 1812 “indeed the use of anonymous usernames breaks the link between the outside hierarchical academic world.” (Jensen, 2012) Therefore, there is no academic hierarchy within Wikipedia, which grants merit to individuals based on academic success. In short, anyone can comment on Wikipedia, and the rest of this post will determine why the page on ‘Misogyny in hip-hop’ is unreliable.

The process for creating an article on Wikipedia is centered on “mass collaboration and communal creativity, which people will work and live with in the future” (Nieborg & Van Dijck, 2009). Therefore it is important to note that the information displayed on the article ‘Misogyny in Hip-Hop’ involves user submitted material, from people who have not displayed their academic qualities. The reason for this volunteered submission from individuals is because “all users supposedly contribute content out of a basic human need to communicate” (Nieborg & Van Dijck, 2009). What can be derived from this quote is that people may be posting and supplying information, out of a desire to receive feedback, especially with a topic as controversial as misogyny in hip-hop. Now that the process of creating an article has been resolved, the validity of the information covered within can be assessed.

First will be determining if the sources used are reliable, unbiased and valid. Many sources include academic journals such as, The Journal of Popular Culture, Journal of Black Studies and Journal of Men and Masculinities. Out of the seventy-one references listed, only three involve academic journals. This demonstrates to me a lack of reliability in the sources. Most sources are from magazine and newspaper articles, which can often include a writer desperate for attention, looking for mere shock value than depicting the facts. Regarding the question of bias, there seems to be minor bias involved within the sources. Many of the sources are derived from work directly from women, and from feminist magazines, which are going to have a biased approach to the situation considering it involves the mistreatment of women. Although writers are expected to be completely unbiased regarding the work they publish, the idea of a woman writing an article with the topic being centered around misogyny, allows for bias to slip through.

Moving along to the contents of the chat page included within this Wikipedia entry, it is clear to see a division between the individuals who have commented. When discussing the contents of the ‘talk’ page it is important to note “Fewer than one in a thousand comment (on Wikipedia)” (Jensen, 2012) and “all users supposedly contribute content out of a basic human need to communicate.”( Nieborg & Van Dijck, 2009) Therefore, when reading the comments it is important to ponder, why are these people taking their time to contribute to this topic? A major issue within the talk page involves whether it should be considered ‘Hip-Hop’ or ‘Rap’ (in regards to the presence of misogyny in the music). Some feel as though hip-hop is far too vast a genre and misogyny is not a central theme throughout, but that is only exists in the specific sub-genre of hip-hop, rap.

Although there is quite some debate included within the talk page, the comments are assessed and addressed democratically. There is no bickering between angry individuals on different sides of the argument, but rather well sought out and written comments, with equally well written rebuttals.

Throughout the talk page, there is no authority figure displaying their credentials or expertise on the topic subject. It appears to be mostly passionate fans of hip-hop music, that would like to defend their favourite artists who are consistently depicted as misogynist throughout the article. For example, many individuals come to the defence of performing artist Eminem, who has become a poster child in regards to the topic of misogyny in hip hop. This demonstrates more proof of bias within the article, as it appears the contributors have a passion for hip-hop music and wish to defend the artists mentioned. This is not necessarily unexpected, as Royal and Kapila stated in their article “Coverage for items that were current were deemed more important and produced more hits thus were covered more frequently.” (Kapila & Royal, 2009) Since hip-hop, in particular rap, is a genre created recently, this topic is definitely considered current, and therefore brings a lot of comments and page views.

To conclude, it is clear the information portrayed on the Wikipedia website regarding misogyny in hip-hop is unreliable, and cannot be considered valid. At this point in this relatively new topic subject, it appears as though the majority of the Wikipedia page is opinion rather than fact. This conclusion has been reached due to the lack of reliable sources included in the article posting on this topic. In addition, it has been determined that there is clear bias within the resources as many are written by feminist publications, who are clearly going to have a bias view regarding the mistreatment of women. Also, when viewing the ‘talk’ page within the article, more bias was revealed in the form of passionate fans defending their favourite artists. The issue of misogyny in hip-hop exists currently, and is one, which is still very misunderstood. Although the presence of misogyny in hip-hop is clear, the Wikipedia page dedicated to it simply contains too much bias, alternate views and does not do a good enough job of determining it’s source, and reasoning. This Wikipedia article is simply too opinion based, when it should be centered on facts.


Jensen, R. (2012). Military history on the electronic frontier: Wikipedia fights the war of 1812. The Journal of Military History, 76, 1165-1182.

Royal, C., & Kapila, D. (2009). What’s on wikipedia and what’s not..? assesing completeness of information. Social Science Computer Review, 27(1), 138-148.

Van Dijck, J., & Nieborg, D. (2009). Wikinomics and its discontents:a critical analysis of web 2.0 business manifestos. New Media and Society, 11(5), 855-874.

*Image Courtesy of Purchased Microsoft Office for Mac.

*Wikipedia Article this Op-Ed piece is based on:

Blogs which look at the validity of Wikipedia articles:

Response: Wikipedia, Information Roulette?

Having read the comments associated with my previous blog post ‘Wikipedia: Information Roulette?” some very interesting points arose which I would like to take the time to address. Firstly, I would like to thank those who commented on my blog, I am very appreciative of them.

An interesting point brought up in my comments was the comparison to Encyclopedia Britannica and whether this was a positive or negative. Considering Britannica is the most recognizable Encyclopedia in the world today, and involves some of the greatest minds in the world collecting and assessing the data, I truly believe this is a positive comparison for Wikipedia. For the information included on Wikipedia, to be so closely associated with such a powerful source of information, demonstrates the effectiveness of peer-production. Although Encyclopedia Britannica simply employs around a hundred well educated individuals to portray the information, Wikipedia takes a drastically different approach in allowing anyone to enter information onto their website, but employs thousands of individuals to regularly monitor and edit the information. Two drastically different approaches, with a very similar outcome demonstrate to me the effectiveness of Wikipedia.

Another point raised within the comments of my previous blog post, involves that which was earlier noted, the editing process, which they deploy, and whether or not this is effective. It is true that anyone can provide information on Wikipedia and state it as fact. Although this is true, I still do not believe this is a deterrent as to the validity of Wikipedia. The reason I believe this is because the immense amount of editors the website employs and the constant monitoring it undertakes. Among the most important events in history, the chances of an individual providing information on the website, long enough for anyone to notice before one of the thousands of editors due, seem very rare. This is why Wikipedia stacks up so well with Britannica. The only instance I see where this would arise a concern is with subjects/events hardly known to the world yet. For instance, a brand new device that may have just been invented might have information provided which is not 100% accurate.  This is because the editors have not been able to verify the information yet, and therefore false information may be included on the website. The counter argument to this is that Wikipedia is just so instant, it provides brand new current information, where other encyclopedia sources would not even have that information yet. The fact that Wikipedia allows anyone to upload information, allows individuals a chance to create a brand new page regarding an object/person/event other sources do not even discuss.

Finally the last point I would like to comment on is regarding the use of Wikipedia as a scholarly source. I do not think Wikipedia is, nor ever will be, a reliable source to use regarding academic work. This does not necessarily discredit the validity of Wikipedia, but more demonstrates the strength needed for sources to be deemed fit for academic purposes. In order for academic sources to be considered, they must be written by individuals who are well respected in their field. Since anyone can provide information to Wikipedia, it simply cannot be qualified as an academic source. That being said, I do believe Wikipedia is a great starting point when researching for academics. For instance, if you are doing a project on the War of 1812, you can go to Wikipedia, read a quick review of the information regarding the War of 1812, acquiring a general idea of the events which took place, and you now have a starting point in regards to your topic. In addition, the sources used for the Wikipedia page are all located at the bottom, and therefore can be opened to find proper academic sources regarding your topic.

When discussing Wikipedia, there is a lot, which is up for debate. I do believe Wikipedia is an excellent source for information regarding anything from music to Canadian history. Although it is very prominent, it is still user created and therefore it will never be considered fit as use for academic sources.

Wikipedia: Information Roulette?


The internet encyclopedia known as Wikipedia, has grown to become a worldwide leader in information, thanks in large part to the ease individuals have accessing its database simply by going to their website, . Although Wikipedia is a massive worldwide website “About 13 percent of all internet users worldwide look at Wikipedia” (Jensen, 2012) also “ranking number 7 in Canada” (Jensen, 2012)  in usage among all websites, the validity of information on Wikipedia has been highly scrutinized. Initially, I had the same beliefs regarding Wikipedia as most people; it is not a reliable source for information. I felt this simply because of all the negative aspects associated with Wikipedia heard so often, peers provide the information, anyone can edit their pages, and the database is too large to monitor to assure all information provided on the website is correct. I must admit after reading the articles for this week’s module, my opinion on Wikipedia as a reliable source of information has greatly changed. Although Wikipedia is not foolproof regarding the distribution of information, it is very reliable.

To begin I will discuss my initial thought regarding Wikipedia; the information displayed on their website can be completed by anyone and therefore it cannot be reliable as the people providing it is unknown. This is a thought many individuals share regarding Wikipedia, but upon reading the Journal Article by Nieborg and Van Dijck my opinion changed considerably. Within the article they discuss how Wikipedia is a model of “mass creativity or peer production” (Nieborg & Van Dijck, 2009), which is roughly defined as “created by crowds of (mostly) anonymous users who define their own informational, expressive and communicational needs.” (Nieborg & Van Dijck, 2009) Rather than determining this as a negative aspect of the information provided by Wikipedia, it seems as though this is positive and the wave of the future in business, specifically Internet business. As stated in the same Nieborg and Van Dijck article “Mass collaborations define the way in which people will work and live in the future.” (Nieborg & Van Dijck, 2009) The implementation of peer-produced information by Wikipedia is now seen as ahead of its time. This mass collaboration which Wikipedia abides by clearly has become the wave of the future as it has surpassed (in unique visitors) “Yahoo News, MSNBC, AOL and CNN” (Kapila & Royal, 2009) Clearly Wikipedia’s mass collaboration process is becoming increasingly affective as it continues to pass major news feeds.

When comparing Wikipedia against The Britannica Encyclopedia, which uses individuals with immense education to provide and edit the information, the mass collaboration process still stacks up quite well. The English version of Wikipedia contains more than one million articles. Kapila and Royal state in their Journal Article from 2009 “By this measure, it is almost 12 times larger than the print version of the Encyclopedia Britannica.” (Kapila & Royal, 2009) This is quite staggering, considering the size of Encyclopedia Britannica. In addition, the accuracy is fairly close to that of Encyclopedia Britannica, deriving information from the same Journal Article, Kapila and Royal state “Within 24 randomly selected general science articles, there were 162 mistakes in Wikipedia versus 123 for Britannica” (Kapila & Royal, 2009). Although it appears as though Britannica is still more accurate, this shows how reliable the information on Wikipedia is considering it can stand toe to toe with the worlds Encyclopedia leader.

It is amazing how you can be entirely convinced of one thing, than read some well written articles, and be completely persuaded to the reverse side of the argument. I use to consistently dismiss Wikipedia as a reliable source for information, simply as a way to find information regarding current music and movies. Having read this week’s articles, I thoroughly believe Wikipedia is reliable, seeing how Wikipedia operates behind the scene, their use of peer production is ahead of its time and all Internet companies are following suit. In addition, having seen the facts comparing Wikipedia to Encyclopedia Britannica, I was shocked to see the results, which displayed how strong the information on Wikipedia is. To seek information of any kind, look no further than Wikipedia. It contains an almost endless amount of topics, provides accurate information, and is regularly edited and updated, I am confident you will be satisfied.


Jensen, R. (2012). Military history on the electronic frontier: Wikipedia fights the war of 1812. The Journal of Military History, 76, 1165-1182.

Royal, C., & Kapila, D. (2009). What’s on wikipedia and what’s not..? assesing completeness of information. Social Science Computer Review, 27(1), 138-148.

Van Dijck, J., & Nieborg, D. (2009). Wikinomics and its discontents:a critical analysis of web 2.0 business manifestos. New Media and Society, 11(5), 855-874.

*Image Courtesy of Purchased Microsoft Office for Mac.

Summary: Evolution of Cyberspace into Social Media

The use of social media in today’s culture could be a lengthy debate with both sides presenting valid points, and in some sense neither being wrong. Social media is so entrenched within our society you now see most commercials on television, the radio or magazines displaying the messages “Like Us on Facebook” or “Follow Us on Twitter”. That being said, clearly people are going to have different views regarding the identity we portray on social media sites.

Following my previous blog post, the feedback I received was mostly positive, but I was left with some wonderful questions to ponder and therefore I am posting this summary in order to discuss the statements I have received. Firstly, I was asked “I think my main question for you is what do you think you will do as the possibility of being anonymous on the internet continues to decrease?” This is an excellent question and caused me to follow up and read the blog of the individual where I found more information regarding privacy on the internet. Upon reading their blog I discovered that Google is now tracking individuals searches through their e-mail addresses. Although it is nearly impossible to avoid being tracked on the internet, there are still ways to stay anonymous. One tip I learned and lean on heavily is the importance of having a single anonymous e-mail address. I currently have several e-mail addresses, but I have one which is completely anonymous and has no relation with myself. No alternate e-mail, fake name, fake information and so forth. The e-mail address I use for personal use is given only to individuals I know and can trust. For various website sign-ups among other forms needed to be completed on the internet, I use my anonymous e-mail and information so there is no affiliation with myself. Anonymous accounts are the easiest way to travel through the depths of cyberspace without being tracked.

Another comment I received discusses the immense benefits of using social media. There are many fascinating benefits from social media, this goes saying without debate. Everyone understands the positives, this is why social media has expanded to the worldwide powerhouse it is now. The importance is displaying the negative aspects of social media sites that are not talked about. Young children joining social media sites for the first time are unaware of the repercussions of having a profile on social media sites. They must be taught this in order to make their own decisions, regarding their own privacy.

Thank-You for all the comments, they were greatly appreciated.

Phil Medeiros

The Evolution of Cyberspace into Social Media

The increasing power of technology continues to improve our day to day lives in various aspects. Our cell phones now act as miniature computers to help provide you with G.P.S. for lengthy car rides, apps for enjoyment and business, as well as various social media streams which allow us to connect with the vastness of the internet. Although at first it seems as though all of these would be positives when discussing the power of cyberspace, as Sherry Turkle sees it, this is becoming a large problem that our generation must face in order to save human relationships. Sherry states in her New York Times article from 2012 “One sees the same thing: we are together, but each of us in our own bubble, furiously connected to keyboards and tiny touch screens. ” It has escalated to the point where young people growing up do not know the proper way to communicate with one another face to face, as Sherry states in the same New York Times article “A 16-year-old boy who relies on texting for almost everything says almost wistfully, Someday, someday, but certainly not now, I’d like to learn how to have a conversation.” This is the increasing issue with technology, and it stems mainly from the growth in social media over the past 5-10 years.

Social media is a way people can stay connected to the globe without having to look further than the apps on their phone. Famous social media sites include Facebook, Twitter and Instagram among many more. The issue regarding social media/cyberspace stems further than just the loss of proper communication, but also creates a lack of privacy for individuals who use them. Although social media has only expanded vastly just recently, it follows a platform which has made cyberspace so popular since its arrival. As She stated in a journal review in 1999 for Contemporary Sociology, long before the emergence of social media, “One key element of online life and its impact on identity: the creation and projection of constructed personae into virtual space.” This seems as though she was almost predicting the possible emergence of social media, but at the time this journal article was written, she was referring to chat-rooms and other platforms of that nature. The problem arising is that these individuals are so focused on their virtual personae, they do not realize the loss of privacy they are encountering. The more information uploaded to an individuals virtual personae, the more their own privacy is threatened. The reason people are so intertwined with social media is because it “gives us the illusion of friendship, without the demands of companionship.” Sherry Turkle hits it right on the head with that last quote from TED2012, people will trade their lack of privacy, for the feeling of friendship they encounter in cyberspace constantly.

imagesHaving heard much from Sherry Turkle and her vision of cyberspace and the problems it creates, I’d like to now share my own personal beliefs on how to avoid disrupting your privacy while maintaining key online friendships which people desire. Firstly, there must be a balance of public, private and personal in relation to social media. My personal relationships stay personal, I never advertise personal encounters, share plans with social media or provide my location. Information I share with the public on social media sites is simple information of very little importance such as opinions on sports, movies, music or other events that have occurred. Neither of these involve sharing personal or private information, but rather just generic opinions. When presenting myself on social media, I use as little information as possible. I never provide my full name, never have a display picture of myself, and post no information in my bio regarding who I am. I enjoy staying anonymous, with only close personal friends knowing who the twitter account belongs to. This relates back to Turkle’s argument from 1999 where she states “one has the choice of being known only by one’s chosen “handle” this is how I choose to present myself. The reason why I am so secretive with my identity on social media is the fact that these sites are under constant surveillance. The fact that the information I post is free for anyone to view and interpret, causes me to be very hesitant to post anything which could shatter my image.

To conclude, the internet has provided the world with great tools to stay in touch with one another, and has the power to make such a vast globe seem so small. Although there are many positives, it is important to understand the harm cyberspace, in particular social media, can cause. The decaying of face to face communication is becoming increasingly harmful to our society, and therefore I place importance on keeping personal relationships private and personal, not on the internet for all to see, but regularly meeting with friends and family to engage socially in person. In addition, the invasion of privacy associated with social media sites leads me to keep information I post as vague as possible, keeping personal information to myself, and sharing only basic views and opinions on leisure matters such as sports, music and movies. I think people are getting too comfortable with social media sites, posting way too much information and in turn severely decreasing their privacy.

Thank-You for Reading.


Turkle, S. (1999). Looking Toward Cyberspace: Beyond Grounded Sociology.  Contemporary Sociology, 28(6), 643-648.

Turkle, Sherry. (2012). “The Flight from Conversation” in The New York Times. pp. SR1

Turkle, Sherry. “”